Two COVID-19 vaccines show safety, strong immunity in the childhood model

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A group of scientists led by researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian reported that the Modern mRNA vaccine and a protein-based candidate elicited lasting responses of neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV -2 -clinical research. There were no adverse effects.

The research, published on June 15 a Scientific immunology, suggests that vaccines for young children are probably important and safe tools to reduce the pandemic.

Co-authors of the work are Kristina De Paris, Ph.D., professor of microbiology and immunology at the UNC School of Medicine, and Sallie Permar, MD, Ph.D., president of the Department of Pediatrics at Weill Cornell. Medicine. Co-first authors are Carolina Garrido, Ph.D., at Duke University, and Alan Curtis, Ph.D., at UNC-Chapel Hill.

“Safe and effective vaccines for young children will help limit the spread of COVID-19 because we know that children can transmit the virus to other people, whether they are sick with SARS-CoV-2 infection or asymptomatic,” he said. say Permar, who is a pediatrician – head to the New York-Presbyterian Komansky Children’s Hospital. “In addition, many children have become ill and have even died due to the infection, with many more negatively affected by the measures taken to curb the spread. Therefore, young children deserve protection against COVID.”

The strong neutralization caused by vaccines in 16 baby rhesus macaques persisted for 22 weeks, and researchers are conducting challenging studies this year to better understand the potential protection of long-term vaccines.

“The level of potent antibodies we observed was comparable to that seen in adult macaques, although the doses were 30 micrograms instead of the 100 microgram doses for adults,” said De Paris, a member. of the UNC Institute for Children’s Research and the UNC Institute for Global Health and Infectious Diseases. “With the Modern Vaccine, we also observed specific responses of strong T cells, which we know are important in limiting the severity of the disease.”

To evaluate childhood SARS-CoV-2 vaccination, researchers vaccinated two groups of eight infants at 2.2 months of age and 4 weeks later at the California National Primate Research Center. Each animal received one of two types of vaccine: a preclinical version of the Modern mRNA vaccine or a protein-based vaccine developed by the Vaccine Research Center of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), which is part of the National Institutes of Health, with a 3M adjuvant that stimulates cells through receptor 7 and 8. similar to toll. The adjuvant was formulated in emulsion by the Infectious Diseases Research Institute (IDRI).

The mRNA vaccine is like a message; provides instructions to the body to produce the virus’s superficial protein, the ear protein. The vaccine does not enter the nucleus, does not affect your DNA and does not persist in the body. Instead, the vaccine will instruct the cells to create the ear protein and our immune cells will recognize it, developing antibodies and other immune responses. The NIAID VRC vaccine is the ear protein itself, which the immune system recognizes in the same way. It is similar to the Novavax protein-based vaccine, which according to reports this week indicates that it is highly effective and safe.

Both vaccines elicited a large amount of IgG-neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and Spike-IL-17, IFN-g, and TNF-specific T cell responses. They are called T helper immune responses 1

It is important to note that vaccines did not obtain T-type helper responses, which may impair the efficacy and safety of the vaccine in infants. These answers may counteract against the virus. Therefore, T helper 2 responses have hindered the development of vaccines in young children, especially by the common respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

“We were sure to check for evidence of T helper 2 responses, such as IL4, in the blood plasma of all macaques, to be sure “De Paris said.” We have to keep studying this, but we haven’t seen any evidence so far. “

Vaccine testing in young children is currently being conducted, as proposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics.


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More information:
Carolina Garrido et al, SARS-CoV-2 vaccines elicit lasting immune responses in childhood rhesus macaques, Scientific immunology (2021). DOI: 10.1126 / sciimmunol.abj3684

Citation: Two COVID-19 vaccines show safety, strong immunity in the infant model (2021, June 15) recovered on June 16, 2021 at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06-covid-vaccines-safety- strong-immunity.html

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