Nutrition researchers saw malnourished children in Indian residential schools as perfect test subjects

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Two girls were lying in bed in the dormitory of All Saints Indian Residential School in Lac La Ronge, Sask., In 1945. Credit: Boorne & May. Library and Archives Canada, e010962312, CC BY

The discovery of hundreds of children’s remains in Kamloops, Brandon i Cowgirl have exposed the settlers of absolute devastation inflicted on children, families and indigenous communities through the Indian residential school system.

As a Canadian nutrition and colony researcher, I ask my colleagues to recognize and understand the harm this causes. experiments on malnutrition and nutrition in indigenous peoples they have caused and the legacy they have left.

Easier to assimilate

Ian Mosby, a historian of food, Indigenous health, and the politics of Canadian colonial colonialism, discovered Between 1942 and 1952, Canada’s leading nutrition scientists conducted highly unethical research in 1,300 indigenous people, including 1,000 , in northern Manitoba foster communities and six residential schools across Canada.

Many were who already suffers from malnutrition due to destructive government policies and appalling conditions in residential schools.

In the eyes of the researchers, this made them ideal test subjects.

Frederick Tisdall – famous for being a co-creator of Pablum Infant Feeding at Toronto Hospital for Sick Children—Together with Percy Moore and Lionel Bradley Pett they were the main architects of the nutritional experiments.

They proposed that educational and dietary interventions do so making Indigenous peoples more profitable assets for Canada, that if the natives were healthier, transmission of diseases such as tuberculosis to white people it would decrease and assimilation would be easier.

They successfully presented their nutritional experiment plan to the federal government.

Tisdall, Moore and his team based their pitch on the results they found later subduing 400 adults and children in northern Manitoba to a series of intrusive assessments, including physical exams, X-rays, and blood draws.

The playing field for Pett and his team focused on determining a baseline. They wanted to give the children to the Alberni Indian Residential School a low amount of milk for two years, enough to substantially deprive growing children of the calories and nutrients they needed.

Other experiments involved retaining essential vitamins and minerals from children in control groups while prevent India’s health services from providing dental care under the guise that this could affect the results of the study.

And even before these experiments, children in Indian residential schools were starving“With serious reports.” and signs of severe vitamin and mineral deficiencies.

Reasons and racial foundations of nutritional experiments

Interest in nutritional research increased dramatically in the 1940s after the Canadian Nutrition Council publicly stated this. more than 60 per cent of people in Canada had nutritional deficiencies.

Most experiments until then had been done on animals, but researchers like Pett, who was the lead author of what later became the Food Guide of Canada, took the opportunity to use indigenous peoples as laboratory rats.

Although authors like Pett often operated under the guise of understanding and helping Indians, the racial foundations of these nutritional experiments have been clear.

Investigators tried to solve the “Indian problem.” Moore, Tisdall, and their collaborators attributed discriminatory stereotypes as “deviation, indolence, improvisation and inertia“to malnutrition.

AE Caldwell, principal of the Alberni Indian Residential School, stated malnutrition was caused by traditional diets and lifestyles, which he also called “indolent habits.” The nutritional experiments, along with the deeply inadequate, low-quality foods that are administered to residential school children, were perfectly aligned with Caldwell’s assimilation mandate.

It is not yet possible to ban all children from proper traditional foods another means of colonization and cultural genocide.

According to Mosby’s findings, Pett said he sought to better understand the “inevitable” transition away from traditional foods, even though Indian residential schools were designed to provoke it.

His research is unethical by contemporary standards and it is hard to believe that it was always acceptable to experiment with anyone, let alone children, without consent.

The aftermath of the Holocaust and biomedical experiments inside led to the development of the Nuremberg Code in 1947, which states that voluntary consent for research is absolutely essential and that experiments must avoid all unnecessary mental and physical suffering.

The code came out the same year Pett began his nutritional experiments at six residential schools.

Consequences of malnutrition and experimentation

Child malnutrition can be fatal, especially when combined with the risk of illness, which often happened in residential schools.

He Final Report of the Truth and Reconciliation Commission indicates that the leading causes of death in residential school children were physical harm, malnutrition, illness, and dropout.

For residential survivors, malnutrition has lasting effects. Hunger during childhood increases the risk of suffering from chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes, and research indicates that it can even cause severe malnutrition epigenetic changes which can be passed down through generations.

Experimenting with children who were already forced to suffer was immoral.

Food insecurity and nutritional problems in indigenous communities they are important problems in Canada, the result of residential schools and colonial policies that continue to this day.

Experiments in residential schools and communities have made health care centers precarious and traumatic places for many indigenous peoples and have resulted in some degree of hesitation during the COVID-19 pandemic. At the same time, stigma, violence and racism towards indigenous peoples persist in these contexts.

This particular history of malnutrition and experiments on indigenous children and adults have previously been explained. That caught the attention of the conventional media in 2013 after Mosby’s investigation and defense.

And it is no surprise to the natives, whose truths we must deeply listen to the truths.


Research relates severe hunger in residential schools to the current health of indigenous peoples


More information:
If you are a survivor of the Indian residential school or have been affected by the residential school system and need help, you can contact the Indian residential school crisis line 24 hours a day: 1-866-925-4419

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Citation: Nutrition researchers saw malnourished children in Indian residential schools were perfect test subjects (2021, June 29) recovered on June 29, 2021 at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- nutrition-malnourished-children-indian-residential.html

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