In its 100 years, who has debugged the Communist Party of China? | China News


The hundred years of history of the Chinese Communist Party are not only revolutions and rejuvenations, but also ruthless.

From the Mao Zedong Cultural Revolution to the repression of Deng Xiaoping’s Tiananmen Square and Xi Jinping’s anti-corruption crusade, CCP leaders have not hesitated to take whatever steps they deem necessary to secure and stay afloat. power.

Nowhere is this more evident than in the cases of internal informants.

From Peng Dehuai, the general who was tortured for opposing Mao’s disastrous economic policies, to Zhao Ziyang, the prime minister erased from history for seeking a compromise with protesters when Deng favored guns and tanks, and Zhou Yongkang, the former security chief who reportedly threatened Xi rise only to be imprisoned for corruption: political purges are a tradition of the CCP long ago.

Here are some of the most prominent figures that were purged:

Peng Dehuai

One of China’s top military leaders, Peng fell in love when he criticized Mao’s Great Leap Forward, an economic program in the late 1950s that sought to catapult China into the industrial era by collectivizing agriculture and creating steel in the garden kilns, but ended up with up to 30 million people starving.

Peng, who had led Chinese forces in the Korean War and signed the armistice ending the hostilities, was appointed defense minister in 1954. But he was removed from office after describing the country’s political practices. Great Leap Forward.

She was also one of the first victims of the Cultural Revolution, an extreme violence campaign launched in 1966 when fanatical red guards loyal to Mao set out to destroy all vestiges of China’s feudal culture and root out the perceived enemies of the president.

Peng was arrested in 1966, imprisoned and tortured, with red guards beating him until his back was “strangled,” according to the village newspaper. He died in 1974 while incarcerated in solitary confinement.

Liu Shaoqi

Left: top Chinese communist leaders Zhou Enlai, prime minister of the People’s Republic of China from its inception in 1949 until his death, Chen Yun, chief planner of China, Liu Shaoqi, head of state China’s Mao Zedong, leading Chinese theorist communist revolution, chairman of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) and president of the Republic, and Deng Xiaoping’s “modernizing” chat during a 1962 CCP Central Committee meeting in Beijing [Xinhua/AFP]

Once considered Mao’s heir, Liu was another prominent victim of the Cultural Revolution.

Liu, who replaced Mao as Chinese head of state in 1959, was condemned by the Red Guards as a “renegade, traitor, pickle” and “capitalist traveler” with the intention of defeating the communist revolution. In 1968 he was stripped of his positions and expelled from the party.

He died in 1969, but his death was not announced until 1974.

Deng Xiaoping

People pass by a poster of the late Chinese leader Deng Xiaoping, who launched the country in his “Reform and Openness” program in Shenzhen, Guangdong Province, China, on December 13, 2018 [File: Thomas Peter/Reuters]

Revolutionary founder of the CCP, Deng was purged from the party twice during the Mao era (1949-1976).

During the Cultural Revolution, Deng’s economic pragmatism and ties to Mao’s rivals within the communist leadership, including Liu Shaoqi, cost him party positions. He was then sent to work in a tractor factory.

Mao took Deng back to power in 1973, appointing him deputy prime minister and giving him day-to-day control of the government. But only four years later, Mao purged Deng again, this time because Mao feared that Deng might reverse some of his radical policies.

After Mao’s death, Deng became China’s supreme leader, although he did not hold the top position in the CCP, and remained the country’s most powerful figure until his death in 1997.

Lin Biao

Lin Biao, a Chinese marshal, succeeded Peng Dehuai as China’s defense minister in 1959.

He played a key role in the Cultural Revolution and was later included as Mao’s successor.

But by 1971, Lin and the military had accumulated more political authority than Mao thought desirable, according to Edward JM Rhoads, a professor of history at the University of Texas. In a desperate move to avoid being purged, Lin plotted a failed coup. The Chinese government later said that Lin had died on September 13, 1971 in a plane crash in Mongolia while fleeing to the Soviet Union.

Jiang Qing

Jiang Qing, a defiant widow of President Mao Zedong, appears before a special court of the Supreme People’s Court in Beijing on Friday, December 5, 1980. [File: AP]

Mao’s third wife, Jiang Qing, and three of his aides were expelled from the party after Mao’s death in 1976.

Jiang, who was part of the group known as the Gang of Four, was arrested and tried for treason and other crimes against the state for his role in the Cultural Revolution. The group was charged with the deaths of 34,375 people and the persecution of hundreds of thousands of people.

During his trial, Jiang was reported to have said, “I was President Mao’s dog. Whoever told me to bite, I bit ”.

Jiang received a suspended death sentence which was later reduced to life imprisonment.

She died by suicide in 1991.

Chen Boda

Mao’s political secretary, Chen was the chief interpreter of the revolutionary leader’s thoughts.

He was sentenced to 18 years in prison for crimes during the Cultural Revolution.

Hu Yaobang

Former Chinese Communist Party Secretary-General Hu Yaobang, who had not been seen in public since December and was removed from office in January, reappears as a member of the Presidium of the National People’s Congress in Beijing. on March 25, 1987. Hu lost his post publishing in the midst of democratic student demands [Neal Ulevich/AP Photo]

Once Deng Xiaoping’s right-hand man, Hu served as the CCP’s secretary general from 1980-87.

In early 1997, after several weeks of student demonstrations demanding greater political freedoms, Hu was removed from the party’s top position and removed to tolerate “bourgeois liberalization” or Western democratic influences.

It was Hu’s death in 1989 that catalyzed student-led protests for democracy in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square. Hu is also credited with helping to repair the political fortune of Xi’s father, Xi Zhongxun, who had been imprisoned during Mao’s time.

“By ending the 16-year purge of the party of Elder Xi’s party and restoring him to a party position in Guangdong, Hu Yaobang paved the way for the continued power and influence of Elder Xi and the the rise of the smallest Xi to final power in China today, ”argued Bonnie Girard, an observer from China, in a 2018 article published in The Diplomat magazine.

Zhao Ziyang

Chinese Communist Party General Secretary Zhao Ziyang went to Tiananmen Square to summon the hunger strike students in the early hours of the morning of May 19, 1989. [AP Photo/Xinhua]

Head of the CCP in 1989, Zhao was a reformist leader who was purged to refuse to declare martial law and send the army to crack down on pro-democracy protests in Tiananmen Square that year.

“I told myself that, whatever it was, I would not be the general secretary mobilizing the military to repress the students,” he later wrote in his memoirs. On May 19, 1989, Zhao even showed up in person at the plaza in the early morning to ask students to leave the area. The next day, martial law was declared in Beijing and two weeks later, the soldiers moved to the square and opened fire, killing hundreds, if not thousands of people.

Zhao was arrested at home and did not reappear in public.

His name has been erased mainly from the Chinese news media, stories and websites.

When he died in 2005, an official obituary only referred to him as a comrade and did not mention that he had helped run the country for nearly ten years.

Zhou Yongkang

Former head of China’s security services, Zhou was jailed for life in 2015 for bribery, corruption and abuse of power.

It was the highest level in Xi’s strong anti-corruption crackdown.

Zhou’s son and wife were also jailed in 2016 for corruption. Reuters news agency said Chinese authorities confiscated $ 14.5 billion from Zhou’s family and detained or interrogated more than 300 relatives, political allies, protégés and Zhou’s political allies.

This screenshot taken from CCTV footage shows former Chinese security chief Zhou Yongkang, before, tried in the Tianjin Intermediate People’s Court on June 11, 2015 [CCTV/AFP]
The then Minister of Public Security of China, Zhou Yongkang, attends the opening ceremony of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China at the Great Hall of the People, Beijing, October 15, 2007 [File: Jason Lee/ Reuters]

A top CCP official later told the party congress in 2017 that Zhou and five other people had plotted to seize Xi’s power. They were prominent politician Bo Xilai, Politburo member Sun Zhengcai, former presidential aide Ling Jihua, the late Army General Xu Caihou and former General Guo Boxiong.

Bo, a former CCP leader in Chongqing, was expelled from the party in 2012 following a dramatic scandal in which his wife was accused of murdering a British businessman. The following year he was jailed for corruption, bribery and abuse of power.

Caihou died while under investigation for grafting, while the remaining three of the alleged plot against Xi were also jailed for corruption.

Sun Zhengcai

Sun Zhengcai, a former Chinese political star and candidate for the presidency of China [File: Wei Yao/AFP]

A former member of the Politburo, Sun was sentenced to life in prison in 2018 for bribery.

He had once been considered a candidate for the top leadership of the party.

A senior CCP official told the 2017 party Congress that Sun and five other people had plotted to seize Xi’s power.

Ling Jihua

Former senior aide to former Chinese President Hu Jintao, Ling was sentenced in 2016 to life in prison for bribery, abuse of power and illegal obtaining of state secrets.

His wife testified at the trial against him.

Ling’s brother, Ling Zhengce, was also sentenced that same year to 12 and a half years in prison for bribery.

A senior CCP official told the 2017 Party Congress that Ling Jihua was one of six people who had plotted to usurp Xi’s power.

Xu Caihou

Xu Caihou, right, vice chairman of the CPC Central Military Commission, which oversees the Chinese military, and Chongqing party secretary Bo Xilai attend the closing session of the National People’s Congress at the Great Hall of the People. Beijing, China, March 14, 2012 [File: Vincent Thian/AP]

A former general who served as vice chairman of China’s Central Military Commission, Xu was expelled from the CCP in 2014 amid allegations of bribery. He died the following year of bladder cancer.

Announcing his death, the Chinese army said Xu’s “pathetic and shameful life” was over.

A senior CCP official told the 2017 party Congress that Xu was one of six people who had plotted to usurp Xi’s power.

Guo Boxiong

A former general who served as vice chairman of the Central Military Commission of China, Guo was jailed for life in 2016 for accepting bribes.

A senior CCP official told the 2017 party Congress that Guo was among the six people who had plotted to usurp Xi’s power.

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