Evidence of real-world CBD, CBD and ketamine, and more. . .


Each week, scientific journals publish dozens of papers related to cannabis, cannabinoids, and the endocannabinoid system. And the pace of research is accelerating.

Between 2018 and 2020, the number of works mentioning cannabidiol (CBD) it almost doubled from 788 to 1,408. And at the current rate, this year there will be another big increase with approximately 1,800 reference jobs CBD published.

To include THC and the projection increases to about 2,600. Below are the minor cannabinoids, endocannabinoids, cannabinoid receptors throughout the human body, and the numerous components of the broader “endocannabidioma”. Suffice it to overwhelm even active researchers venturing beyond their niche into the rapidly expanding field of cannabinoid science, let alone consumers and health professionals.

Real world CBD Tests

Relatively few of these works describe studies conducted with humans. Many present experimental results in animals (usually rats, mice, or zebrafish), and some are even more theoretical and removed from the results that concern us most, those related to actual human health outcomes.

A new paper of Canada caught our attention because it evaluated a number of results among a large number of patients at a medical cannabis clinic in Quebec (279, to be exact) who had both used CBD i THC in the course of their daily life for a period of up to six months.

Published in Journal of Cannabis Research, the paper includes some fascinating results, with the important caveat (common to all real-world or “naturalistic” observational studies due to the lack of a control group) that a cause-and-effect relationship cannot be inferred.

Compared with their scores at baseline, participants with moderate or severe symptoms reported experiencing considerably less pain, anxiety, and depression and greater well-being after three months of formal treatment. After six months, improvements remained relatively constant. However, these improvements were not seen in participants classified as having only mild symptoms.

Due to the subjective and self-reported nature of symptom assessment, the researchers note that the findings may be skewed by participants ’positive expectation of treatment, which may lead to a placebo effect. But this does not explain why patients with moderate or severe symptoms would respond much more than those with mild symptoms. “The results of this study help address myths and misinformation about CBD treatment and call for more research, ”the authors conclude.

Best together: ketamine i CBD

Ketamine i CBD both exert effects mediated by the endocannabinoid system. What happens when they are administered together?

An anesthetic with dissociative and hallucinogenic effects, ketamine has recently been used more and more as a remedy for major depressive disorder in numerous clinical trials. WE. Scientists in Brazil and Denmark wanted to know if CBD, also known for its antidepressant properties, could reduce the unwanted psychostimulant side effects of ketamine.

To find out, the researchers administered ketamine and CBD in mice, both alone and in combination. Their results were reported to Neuropharmacology, please indicate CBD maintained the desired antidepressant effect of ketamine (according to a behavioral model designed to approach what we call “depression” in humans), while attenuating the adverse stimulant effects of ketamine (according to an animal model of “locomotor activity”). ).

The authors emphasize that these findings will need to be replicated in other animal models. But they also point out that there are good reasons to believe they will hold up. We already know this from both human and animal studies CBD can prevent some of the less desirable effects of other compounds, including the occasionally cheeky brother of cannabidiol, THC.

Intergenerational effects of Omega-3s

At the beginning of the year, Project CBD wrote about how the balance of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids in the diet affects overall health through the endocannabinoid system (ECS). A recent report by researchers from Brazil, Italy and Canada al Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry presents evidence that advances our understanding of the link between these essential dietary compounds and the ECS.

Female rats received one of three different diets: high in omega-3, low in omega-3 or control, 15 days before mating and during pregnancy. The scientists then analyzed the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of the mothers and offspring two days after birth.

Consistent with what was expected, the researchers found a reduced expression of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor and increased expression of the CB2 recipient of mothers fed an omega-3-deficient diet. Interestingly, they also found exactly the same in the offspring of these mother rats.

In addition, in the offspring of mothers fed supplemental omega-3, researchers found an increase in omega-3-derived endocannabinoid levels. DHEA i EPEA in both the hippocampus and cerebral cortex, as well as reduced levels of the omega-6-derived endocannabinoid 2-AG in the cerebral cortex.

Together, these findings demonstrate that changes in endocannabinoid and cannabinoid receptor levels in the brain associated with dietary intake of omega-3 fatty acids can be passed from one generation to the next, at least in rats. The study does not relate these alterations to any specific health outcome.

BPA, Obesity and CB1 Receiver

Now let’s move on to the zebrafish. These little swimmers are commonly used as animal model instead of mice and rats to better understand human biological systems. (And yes, they have stripes.)

A team of researchers from three different institutions in China exposed the adult male zebrafish to the notorious plastic additive BPA and a related bisphenol, TBBPA, at concentrations commonly present in the environment. Subsequent analyzes revealed that these toxic chemicals increased appetite and induced obesity by activating the CB1 receptor, and that at least four additional bisphenols may also bind successfully CB1.

Published in Dangerous materials magazine, these findings agree with the data discussed in Project May 2020 CBD article noting that chemicals that alter the endocrine system, including bisphonols, phthalates, parabens, PFAS, and organophosphate pesticides – appear to exert at least some of their countless harmful effects on human health due to disruption of the endocannabinoid system.

Nate Seltenrich, a freelance science journalist based in San Francisco Bay, covers a wide range of topics such as environmental health, neuroscience and pharmacology.

Copyright, project CBD. Cannot reprint without permission.

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