Vaccines are mostly synonymous with needles, an effective and efficient way to provide immunity to countless infections. As COVID-19 vaccination efforts are developed around the world and the United States, some experts believe that a nasal-administered vaccine may be just as effective and easier to administer. A cover story a Chemistry and engineering news, explains the pros and cons of nasal vaccines.
SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, often enters the body through the nose when a person inhales. From here lies a network of mucous membranes that form the body’s first line of immune defense, writes associate editor Ryan Cross. The cells of the mucous membranes create a special type of antibody, which experts say can provide immunity to both the mucosa and the systemic when a vaccine is triggered that is shot into the nasal cavity. In contrast, injectable vaccines only trigger a systemic immune response. COVID-19 vaccines currently available in the US and Europe are highly effective, but there is not enough supply to inoculate everyone. Therefore, an intranasal version could help compensate for the disparity, as well as being easier to use.
However, the mucosa immune system it is difficult to study and intranasal vaccines have not generated much interest in recent years. Only one intranasal vaccine (AstraZeneca’s FluMist) has hit the market in the United States, but its higher cost and mixed results compared to the typical flu vaccine have made it unpopular. In addition, the way the vaccine is given means that a patient can sneeze a part of it before the body absorbs it, so it is not clear how much dose a person receives. Despite these challenges, scientists and biotechnology companies continue to work to make intranasal vaccines for respiratory diseases. The pandemic has provided an opportunity to run clinical trials, and at least one company expects to manufacture and distribute nasal doses of COVID-19 vaccine at the end of the year.
“Intranasal vaccines aim to stop COVID-19 from starting” cen.acs.org/pharmaceuticals/va … es-stop-COVID / 99 / i21
American Chemical Society
Citation: Creation of a needle-free COVID-19 vaccine (2021, June 9) retrieved June 9, 2021 from https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06-needle-free-covid-vaccine.html
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