The secret to healthier skin and joints may lie in intestinal microorganisms. A study led by UC Davis Health researchers has found that a diet high in sugar and fat leads to an imbalance in gut microbial culture and can contribute to inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis.
“Previous studies have shown that the Western diet, characterized by its high sugar and fat content, can cause inflammation of the skin and psoriasis flares, “said Sam T. Hwang, professor and president of dermatology at UC Davis Health and lead author of the study.” Despite having potent anti-inflammatory for skin condition, our study indicates that simple dietary changes can also have significant effects on psoriasis. ”
What is psoriasis?
Psoriasis is a stubborn skin disease related to the body’s immune system. When immune cells mistakenly attack healthy skin cells, they cause inflammation of the skin and the formation of itchy red spots and spots.
Up to 30% of psoriasis patients also present with psoriatic arthritis with symptoms such as morning stiffness and fatigue, swollen swollen fingers and toes, joint pain, and nail changes.
Diet affects microbial balance in the gut and inflammation of the skin
Food is one of the main modifiable factors that regulate food intestinal microbiota, the community of microorganisms that live in the gut. Eating a western diet can cause a rapid change in the gut microbial community and its functions. This alteration of microbial balance, known as dysbiosis, contributes to intestinal inflammation.
Since gut bacteria can play a key role in the formation of inflammation, the researchers wanted to test whether intestinal dysbiosis affects the inflammation of the skin and joints. They used one mouse model to study the effect of diet on psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They injected mice with interleukin-23 (IL-23) minicircle DNA to induce a response that mimicked psoriasis-like skin and joint disease.
IL-23 is a protein generated by the immune cells responsible for many inflammatory autoimmune reactions, including psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).
Hwang and colleagues found that a short-term Western diet seems sufficient to cause a microbial imbalance and increase susceptibility to skin inflammation similar to IL-23-mediated psoriasis.
“There is a clear link between inflammation of the skin and changes in the intestinal microbiome due to food intake“Bacterial balance in the gut was disrupted shortly after starting a Western diet and worsened psoriatic skin and joint inflammation,” Hwang said.
A critical finding of his work was to identify the intestinal microbiota as a pathogenic link between diet and manifestations of psoriatic inflammation. The study also found that antibiotics block the effects of the Western diet, reducing inflammation of the skin and joints.
Is the damage caused by an unhealthy diet reversible?
The researchers wanted to test whether switching to a balanced diet could restore the gut microbiota, despite the presence of inflammatory proteins IL-23. They fed the mice a Western diet for six weeks before giving them an IL-23 inducing agent to trigger traits of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. They then divided the random mice into two groups: a group that continued the Western diet for four more weeks and a group that switched to a balanced diet for the same duration.
His study showed that eating a diet high in sugar and fat for 10 weeks predisposes mice to inflammation of the skin and joints. Mice that were changed to balanced diet it had less flaking of the skin and a reduced ear thickness than mice on a western diet. Skin improvement inflammation for mice withdrawn from the western diet indicates a short-term impact of the western diet inflammation of the skin.
This suggests that dietary changes could partially reverse the proinflammatory effects and alteration of the intestinal microbiota caused by the Western diet.
“It was quite surprising that a simple modification of the diet of less sugar and fat could have significant effects on psoriasis,” said Zhenrui Shi, visiting assistant researcher in the UC Davis Department of Dermatology and lead author of the study. “These findings reveal that patients with psoriatic skin and joint disease should consider switching to a healthier dietary pattern.”
“This work reflects a successful collaboration between researchers, especially with Professor Satya Dandekar and her team from the Department of Medical Microbiology and Immunology and Professor Yu-Jui Yvonne Wan from the Department of Medical Pathology and Laboratory Medicine,” he said. dir Hwang.
Zhenrui Shi et al, Short-term Western dietary intake promotes inflammation of the skin and joints mediated by IL-23 omp Accompanied by changes in the intestinal microbiota in mice, Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2021). DOI: 10.1016 / j.jid.2020.11.032
Citation: Changing the Western Diet to a Balanced Diet Can Reduce Inflammation of the Skin and Joints (2021, June 22) Retrieved June 22, 2021 at https://medicalxpress.com/news/2021-06- western-diet-skin-joint-inflammation. html
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